Other Scottish Country Dances for this Day
Today's Musings, History & Folklore
"Friends are the fruitcake of life —
some nutty, some soaked in alcohol, some sweet."
~ Jon Ronson
Stir-up Sunday is a traditional Sunday before Advent in which holiday baking is begun, particularly for plum puddings or soused fruitcakes. Love them or hate them, when a fruitcake contains a good deal of alcohol, it can remain edible for many years. A fruitcake baked in 1878 was kept as an heirloom by a family from Tecumseh, Michigan, and sampled by Jay Leno on The Tonight Show in 2003. Another more recent archaeological find of the fruitcake kind was a 106-year-old fruitcake discovered in 2017 by the Antarctic Heritage Trust described as in "excellent condition" and "almost" edible.
Traditionally, Stir-up Sunday is an informal term in Anglican churches for the last Sunday before the season of Advent. It gets its name from the beginning of the collect for the day in the Book of Common Prayer, which begins with the words, "Stir up, we beseech thee, O Lord, the wills of thy faithful people". But this day has become associated with the pleasant custom of making the Christmas puddings, some of which need a significant time to mature in their alcoholic liquor.
Traditionally, the batter consisted of 13 ingredients representing Christ and his 12 apostles. Silver charms were often added as prizes or puns, as described in Mrs. Beeton’s famous 1923 cookbook. After the mixture was assembled, each family member (including the servants) took their turn stirring the batter in a clockwise direction; this was to honor the Magi who traveled east to west on their way to Bethlehem to see the baby Jesus. A silent wish for the New Year by each participant added mystery to the ritual. Steamed for 4–6 hours and stored for five weeks, the pudding would be decorated with a sprig of variegated holly to ward off witches, doused with liquor and brought flaming to the table. It was believed that all those who ate Christmas pudding made on Stir-up Sunday would receive God’s blessing.
Many people enjoy preparing a favorite plum pudding or old-fashioned fruitcake dessert during the holidays, while others have a secret loathing for that most controversial of holiday foods which makes its appearance during this season - the fruitcake!
The term "fruitcake" elicits strong opinions from those who eat (or avoid) them, and although December 27th is officially Fruitcake Day, this date is probably more often used to toss out any remaining vestiges of some commercially bought fruitcakes.
As a traditional cake, the earliest recipe for fruitcake comes from ancient Rome and lists pomegranate seeds, pine nuts, and raisins mixed into barley mash. By the Middle Ages, honey, spices, and precious preserved fruits were added.
Fruit cakes soon proliferated all over Europe. Recipes varied greatly in different countries, depending on the available ingredients as well as church regulations forbidding the use of butter, regarding the observance of a fast. Pope Innocent VIII finally granted the use of butter in a written permission known as the ‘Butter Letter' or 'Butterbrief' in 1490, giving permission to Saxony to use milk and butter in the North German Stollen fruit cakes.
Starting in the 16th century, sugar from the American Colonies and the discovery that high concentrations of sugar could preserve fruits created an excess of candied fruit, thus making fruit cakes more popular.
Many traditional Christmas fruitcakes are round, covered in marzipan, and decorated with white royal icing or fondant. While store-bought fruitcakes, are known for their green and red candied fruit.
In 1947, the most famous fruitcake in history was made for the royal wedding of Princess Elizabeth and Prince Philip (now Queen Elizabeth II and the Duke of Edinburgh). The official wedding cake was four tiers and stood 9 feet high. A slice of the 68-year-old cake sold at auction for 560 pounds!
A traditional Scottish fruitcake with a different topping, the Dundee cake, originated in nineteenth-century Scotland, and was mass-produced cake by the Keiller's marmalade company. A popular story regarding the Dundee cake's origins is that Mary Queen of Scots did not like glacé cherries in her cakes, so the cake was first made for her with blanched almonds instead of cherries.
For a classic Scottish recipe for Dundee cake - containing sultanas, Amontillado sherry, candied orange peel, dried vine fruits and whole, blanched almonds on top - click here from the newly released Outlander Kitchen cookbook, relating recipes to references in the romantic book series.
And for more on the history of fruitcake, click Edward Gorey's humorous illustration.