Duke Kahanamoku surfing Waikiki
Other Scottish Country Dances for this Day
Today's Musings, History & Folklore
"🎶 Don't be afraid to try the greatest sport around
Catch a wave, catch a wave!
Those who don't just have to put it down
You paddle out, turn around and raise
And baby that's all there is to the coastline craze
You gotta catch a wave and you're sittin' on top of the world."
Archaeological evidence suggests that ancient cultures of Peru surfed on reed watercraft for fishing and recreation up to five thousand years ago! But standing up on what is now called a surfboard is a relatively recent innovation developed by the Polynesians. The art of surfing, known as heʻe nalu (wave sliding in the Hawaiian language) was originally a ritualized art form in ancient Hawaii, a sport of the elite to partner with the spirit of the ocean and master the waves. Modern surfing's origins can be traced to 1885, when four teenage Hawaiian princes took a break from their boarding school, St. Mathew's Hall in San Mateo, and came to cool off in Santa Cruz, California. There, David Kawananakoa, Edward Keliʻiahonui, Jonah Kūhiō Kalaniana'ole, and Elle Mancini surfed the mouth of the San Lorenzo River on custom-shaped redwood boards. This kicked off the surfing craze almost immediately, as local demonstrations and enthusiasts brought the sport to Australia, Great Britain, and both costs of the United States. Hang ten! 🏄♀️
Riding the Wave
The "father of surfing," Duke Kahanamoku, born August 24, 1890 in Haleʻākala, Honolulu, was an American competition swimmer widely credited with spreading the sport of surfing.
His nickname, "The Big Kahuna" is taken from the Hawaiian word for a "priest, sorcerer, magician, wizard, minister, expert in any profession."
In his youth, Kahanamoku preferred a traditional surf board, which he called his "papa nui", constructed after the fashion of ancient Hawaiian "olo" boards. Made from the wood of a koa tree, it was 16 feet (4.9 m) long and weighed 114 pounds (52 kg). The board was without a skeg, which had yet to be invented.
At the 1912 Summer Olympics in Stockholm, he won a gold medal in the 100-meter freestyle, and a silver medal with the second-place U.S. team in the men's 4x200-meter freestyle relay. During the 1920 Olympics in Antwerp, he won gold medals both in the 100 meters and in the relay. He finished the 100 meters with a silver medal during the 1924 Olympics in Paris, with the gold going to Johnny Weissmuller and the bronze to Duke's brother, Samuel Kahanamoku.
Between and after Olympic competitions, Kahanamoku traveled internationally to give swimming exhibitions. It was during this period that he popularized the sport of surfing, previously known only in Hawaii, by incorporating surfing exhibitions into these visits as well. His surfing exhibition at Sydney's Freshwater Beach on December 24, 1914 is widely regarded as a seminal event in the development of surfing in Australia.
While living in Newport Beach, California on June 14, 1925, Kahanamoku rescued eight men from a fishing vessel that capsized in heavy surf while attempting to enter the city's harbor. 29 fishermen went into the water and 17 perished. Using his surfboard, he was able to make quick trips back and forth to shore to increase the number of sailors rescued. Two other surfers saved four more fishermen. Newport's police chief at the time called Duke's efforts "the most superhuman surfboard rescue act the world has ever seen."
For more on this famous surfer, click the vintage travel advertisement featuring "The Big Kahuna."